[zz]最直白的解释Higgs Boson希格斯子

科学家很难向英国政府解释清楚希格斯场,所以在1993年,英国科学部长威廉•瓦多格列佛(William Waldegrave)向科学家发起了挑战,让他们用一页纸的篇幅向他解释希格斯场。瓦多格列佛拿出了一瓶香槟奖给了获胜者,其中就包括英国伦敦大学学院的物理学家戴维•米勒(David Miller)。米勒把希格斯场比作一个房间,房间里均匀分散着一大群为政客聚会服务的工作人员。一个无关紧要的人可以不受阻碍地在人群中穿来穿去。然而,如果是时任英国首相撒切尔夫人(Margaret Thatcher)到场,一定会吸引大量的关注:聚会工作人员会围拢在她周围,减慢她穿行的速度,使她带上某种“质量”。


The Higgs Mechanism

Imagine a cocktail party of political party workers who are uniformly distributed across the floor, all talking to their nearest neighbours. The ex-Prime- Minister enters and crosses the room. All of the workers in her neighbourhood are strongly attracted to her and cluster round her. As she moves she attracts the people she comes close to, while the ones she has left return to their even spacing. Because of the knot of people always clustered around her she acquires a greater mass than normal, that is, she has more momentum for the same speed of movement across the room. Once moving she is harder to stop, and once stopped she is harder to get moving again because the clustering process has to be restarted. In three dimensions, and with the complications of relativity, this is the Higgs mechanism.